Cara Mengatasi Bencana (Coping Disaster)

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) menjabarkan beberapa hal yang dapat dilakukan terhadap orang-orang yang terkena dampak bencana (sumber: https://www.fema.gov/coping-disaster dioleh kembali secara pribadi).

Memahami kejadian dari bencana
Memahami bahwa kondisi emosional korban yang dilanda bencana kadang bisa lebih dahsyat daripada kehilangan rumah, bisnis, atau properti pribadi. Memahami bahwa adanya rasa cemas tentang keselamatan diri, keluarga, dan teman terdekat merupakan hal yang wajar. Memahami bahwa kesedihan mendalam, dukacita, dan kemarahan adalah reaksi normal dalam keadaan yang tidak normal. Berfokus pada kekuatan dan kemampuan untuk membantu
pemulihan pascabencana. Setiap orang memiliki kebutuhan yang berbeda dan cara yang berbeda untuk mengatasi.

Mengenali tanda-tanda stres akibat bencana
Ketika seseorang mengalami stres, mereka mungkin membutuhkan bantuan konseling. Oleh sebab itu, perlu kiranya mengenali tanda-tanda stres terkait bencana, di antaranya: kesulitan mengkomunikasikan pikiran, susah tidur, disorientasi atau kebingungan, kesulitan berkonsentrasi, keengganan untuk meninggalkan rumah, depresi, kesedihan, putus asa mudah mudah menangis berkepanjangan, perasaan bersalah yang luar biasa dan keraguan diri, takut akan orang banyak, orang asing, atau cenderung menyendiri.

Mengurangi stres terkait bencana
Beberapa hal yang dapat dilakukan untuk membantu korban bencana dalam mengurangi stres, yakni: mengajak korban berbicara tentang perasaannya meskipun mungkin sulit, mencari bantuan dari konselor profesional yang berurusan dengan stres pasca-bencana. Memberi pemahaman kepada korban untuk tidak menyelahkan diri sendiri atau menjadi frustrasi karena mereka merasa tidak dapat membantu ketika penyelamatan, dll.

Membantu anak-anak menghadapi bencana
Bencana dapat menjadikan anak-anak merasa takut, bingung, dan tidak aman. Anak-anak mungkin menanggapi bencana dengan menunjukkan ketakutan, kesedihan atau masalah perilaku. Hal-hal yang dapat dilakukan untuk membantu anak-anak menangani bencana yakni:

a) Mengenali faktor risiko, seperti kontak langsung dengan bencana, kehilangan keluarga, efek sekunder dari bencana seperti tinggal di tempat sementara, dll.

b) Mengenali kerentanan pada anak. Hindari hal-hal yang berhubungan dengan kejadian bencana, seperti abu, sirine, dan pengingat lain yang kembali dapat mengganggu perasaan mereka.

c) Memenuhi kebutuhan emosional anak. Memahami apa yang menjadi penyebab kecemasan dan ketakutan pada anak-anak. Menyadari bahwa setelah bencana, anak-anak akan takut jika becana tersebut terjadi kembali, seseorang yang dekat dengan mereka akan tewas atau cedera, mereka akan ditinggalkan sendiri atau terpisah dari keluarga.

d) Meyakinkan anak-anak setelah bencana. Beberapa hal yang dapat dilakukan, di antaranya menciptakan kontak pribadi yang meyakinkan seperti memeluk dan menyentuh, mendorong anak-anak untukberbicara tentang perasaan mereka, dll.

e) Memantau dan membatasi paparan media, karena pemberitaan terkait bencana dapat menimbulkan ketakutan dan kebingungan, serta membangkitkan kecemasan pada anak-anak.

RUJUKAN

McFarlane, Alexander C. 2005. Psychiatric Morbidity Following Disasters: Epidemiology, Risk and Protective Factors. Dalam Lopez-lbor, Juan Lose, et. al. Disaster and Mental Health (hlm. 37-64). West Sussex: Wiley.

Solomon, Susan D., Green, Bonnie L., 1992. Mental Health Effects of Natural and Human-Made Disasters. Diakses pada 26 Januari 2014 pukul 10.47 WIB dari http://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/newsletters/research-quarterly/V3N1.pdf.

Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2015. Coping Disater. Diakses pada 26 Januari 2015 pukul 10.58 WIB dari https://www.fema.gov/coping-disaster.

Perbandingan Dampak Psikologis Akibat Natural Disaster dan Man-made Disaster

McFarlane (2005) menyatakan bahwa bencana buatan manusia lebih cenderung sulit bagi individu untuk ditolerir karena merupakan tindakan terencana yang pada suatu kesempatan sengaja direncanakan dan dilaksanakan. Smith dan North (dalam McFarlane, 2005) juga berpendapat bahwa bencana teknologi dan buatan manusia cenderung lebih traumatis dari bencana alam. Biasanya individu atau masyarakat merasakan rasa sakit yang lebih besar ketika menjadi korban bencana yang diakibatkan oleh manusia.

Solomon dan Green dalam jurnal Mental Health Effects of Natural and Human-Made Disasters menjabarkan perbedaan dampak psikologis antara korban natural disaster dengan man-made disaster, salah satunya berdasarkan waktu pemulihan:
• Natural disaster: dampak psikologis biasanya berlangsung selama 3 tahun, meskipun sebagian besar gejala dapat mereda sekitar 16 bulan.
• Man-made disaster: dampak psikologis akibat man-made disaster dapat bertahan lebih lama daripada natural disaster. Contoh, peristiwa Three Mile Island tahun 1979 menunjukkan, efek psikologis negatif terjadi pada warga di dekat reaktor TMI 6 tahun setelah kebocoran awal. Penelitian lebih lanjut juga menunjukkan bahwa dampak psikologis pada beberapa korban berlangsung selama 14 tahun.

RUJUKAN
McFarlane, Alexander C. 2005. Psychiatric Morbidity Following Disasters: Epidemiology, Risk and Protective Factors. Dalam Lopez-lbor, Juan Lose, et. al. Disaster and Mental Health (hlm. 37-64). West Sussex: Wiley.

Solomon, Susan D., Green, Bonnie L., 1992. Mental Health Effects of Natural and Human-Made Disasters. Diakses pada 26 Januari 2014 pukul 10.47 WIB dari http://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/newsletters/research-quarterly/V3N1.pdf.

Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2015. Coping Disater. Diakses pada 26 Januari 2015 pukul 10.58 WIB dari https://www.fema.gov/coping-disaster.

Esai Beasiswa UNHAN: Disaster Management for National Defence

By: Novia Faradila, 2014

Flash floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, smog, and other disasters occur in various regions in Indonesia in recent months. People not only sustain material loss, but also suffer prolonged trauma and the loss of hundreds of lives of the people of Indonesia affected by the disaster. Badan Penanggulangan Bencana Nasional (National Disaster Management Agency) in its report informs, from January to February 2014 alone there were 424 occurrences of disasters in various regions in Indonesia. Victims lost and died more than 254 people, as many as 1,447 people injured, and 1,587,219 people suffer and displaced, not to mention the damage as much as 27,790 residential units. Until recently, disasters hit Indonesia very often.

Indonesia geographically is an archipelago that lies at the confluence of three major tectonic plates of the world: the Eurasian Plate, Indo-Australian Plate, and the Pacific Plate. In the southern and eastern parts of Indonesia, lies a volcanic belt that extends from the island of Sumatra-Java-Nusa Tenggara-Sulawesi, that side of the mountains and the old volcanic plains are mostly dominated by swamps. The condition and potential hazard such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, floods and landslides. The data shows that Indonesia is one country that has a high level of seismicity in the world, more than 10 times the level of seismicity in the United States.

Disaster management is an important factor in the planning and arrangements to prepare before disaster happens and resolve the aftermath. Disaster management is a dynamic process, which was developed from the classical management functions include planning, organizing, sharing of tasks, control, and surveillance. The process also involves a wide range of organizations that must work together to strengthen the prevention, mitigation, preparedness, emergency response, and disaster recovery. Lack of knowledge about disaster management gives a lot of learning in identifying potential disaster in the environment.

Disaster management course is a way to explore the science of disaster management. The presence of these disciplines gives color to the world of education, that education is not just all about addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division, but also knowledge about the environment and disaster is very beneficial to the welfare and safety of people in a region.

Particularly in Indonesia, disaster management is very necessary to develop because as mentioned earlier, Indonesia is a disaster-prone country. It required knowledge and qualified human resources in managing the disaster. Disaster becomes a serious nuisance to the people of Indonesia, causing extensive losses whether in terms of material, economic, or environmental and often exceed the community’s ability to cope. Thus, the deeper understanding of the disaster, the more you will be able to respond better. Alert and response based on the recognition and understanding of what will happen could be able to minimize the risk of disasters that hit Indonesia.

This country has a lot of cultural diversity in him it. There are hundreds of ethnicity, language, region, and also a wide range of traditional customs spread over thousands of islands. Very regrettable if the wealth of Indonesia destroyed just because people are not able to be independent in the face of disaster that can befall on them at any time. This is where the role of the scholars in the field of disaster management is needed by the community. They spearhead communities to manage disaster at every phase, both an early phase response, recovery and rehabilitation, as well as in community preparedness phase. They also became the “right hand” of society and become “healers” to people who are being affected.

In terms of the job market, graduates of disaster management certainly has a great job market in government and private institutions are directly or indirectly related to disaster management. However, more than that disaster management is a study not only “stand” as a science. Disaster management is a discipline that “noble” in the humanitarian field. This program is able to educate the nation’s people what to do, including disaster management capabilities in the areas of communication, coordination, and advocacy of human resources and other resources in an effective, efficient, and humane nation for the sake of durability.

Disaster management is needed by the Indonesian people and even nations around the world. Having knowledge about disaster management make the Indonesian people, especially, to be a nation that is strong and tough to survive in the face of disaster, now and later.[]

Esai ini saya tulis sebagai syarat pendaftaran di Universitas Pertahanan Indonesia. Alhamdulillah saya telah melewati tahap verifikasi administrasi. Hehe.. Well, semoga esai ini bermanfaat dan menginspirasi! 

Verifikasi Administrasi UNHAN